Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall, who served in that position from 1801 to 1835, is usually quoted today as the "authority" for the new trend in usurpatious legislation by the Supreme Court as it adventures into areas where no law is written save by judicial decree.
But this sort of violation of the Constitution by the courts was not sanctioned by Chief Justice Marshall when he said these words: "The enlightened patriots who framed our Constitution, and the people who adopted it, must be understood to have employed words in their natural sense, and to have intended what they said."
Our Constitution means exactly what it says—and all powers not delegated to the Federal Government nor denied the states are retained by the states and the people. The courts have no right and no legitimate power to go beyond what the Constitution says in "words in their natural sense."
And William E. Gladstone in a letter to the committee in charge of the celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of the American Constitution, July 20, 1887, said: "I have always regarded that Constitution as the most remarkable work known to men in modem times to have been produced by the human intellect, at a single stroke (so to speak), in its application to political affairs."